April 27, 2016

Congrats to the NEW 24th and Lake Historic District!

The intersection of North 24th and Lake Streets in the 1940s.

According to the Nebraska State Historical Society, today it was announced that the 24th and Lake Historic District has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places! Woohoo!

"North 24th and Lake Historic District: The intersection of North 24th and Lake Streets has a long, complex history in North Omaha, dating to the late 19th century and the establishment of streetcar lines. Originally residential, the area slowly commercialized as business owners capitalized on the intersection of two streetcar lines and the increasing numbers of immigrants that settled in the area. Significantly damaged by the 1913 Omaha tornado, the district quickly rebounded as a center of commerce. 
At the same time, the neighborhood became a center of jazz music and of African American civic and cultural life, hosting numerous music halls, businesses, and professionals that catered to Omaha's growing black population. Created by discriminatory housing policies and other forms of segregation, both customary and legal, the neighborhood faced severe challenges in the mid-twentieth century. Riots in 1966, 1968, and 1969, declining economic prosperity, the loss of businesses due to freeway construction and the end of streetcar service all took their toll. 
The neighborhood currently is undergoing a resurgence driven by public and private investment, restoring its vitality and importance in Omaha's civic and cultural life."

Congrats to everyone involved in making this exciting development happen!

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April 26, 2016

A History of Mob Terrorism in Omaha

Mobs have terrorized Omaha since the city was founded in 1854.

Defined as "the use of violence and intimidation in the pursuit of political aims," terrorism was been the weapon of Omaha's mobs from the beginning.

Early on, they were seemingly concerned with horse thieves, claim jumping and break-ins. In more recent times, mobs attacked people in Omaha because of their race and ethnicities. 50 years ago, mobs lashed out at businesses. Notably, there hasn't been any mob terror 

There are many things that motivate mob terrorism, including righteous fanaticism and the mob mentality, also known as peer pressure. The acts described here are murderous terrorism that was intended to control masses of people by superseding democratic due process.

Many people have argued with me about the difference between mob terrorism and vigilantism, saying that one is evil while the other is acceptable. I thoroughly believe that to accept that one is okay while condemning the other is hypocritical at best; at worst, it propagates the intentions of both.

There are several stories in this history of mob terrorism in Omaha. In the first one, despite a US Marshall and judge trying to stop them in 1856, an Omaha mob whipped and may have drowned two men accused of stealing horses. In the second story from 1858, a farmer said he kept losing horses. Suspecting they were being stolen, he claimed to have caught the suspects. After being stolen from jail, the men were murdered by a mob of dozens. The third story comes from 1861, when two men were arrested, one confessed and implicated the other, and a judge ordered a trial. A mob walked into the jail and murdered the one accused of being the worst, and let the other walk.

Whipped and Thrown in the River

In the summer of 1856, some settlers near Omaha bought two horses from local Pawnees. The Pawnees got them from two men selling horses nearby. When the two horses were stolen, the settlers went to the Pawnee, who explained where they got the horses from. The horse thieves were identified when they tried to sell mules to the Pawnee, who tied up the men and brought them into town.

An 1875 illustration of the lashings, showing half of each man's head shaved.

The men They were brought to a "liberty pole" near 12th and Farnam in front of the Apex Saloon. Half of each of their heads were shaved, and one of the the accused "was stripped to the hips and his hands tied to the liberty pole" to be whipped. The Pawnee were given the chance to whip the men first, but when they hit too hard, the whips were given to the horses' rightful owners.

The local judge demanded the whippings stop, and sent US Marshall B. P. Rankin to stop them. However, Rankin barely did anything and the whippings continued. After each man was whipped, they were thrown into the Missouri River and were never seen again.

Lynching the Accused 

The year 1858 brings the story of a farmer in Florence who kept having horses stolen. Catching the thieves in the act once, he grabbed a group of neighbors and chased them down just north of town. The two, named Harvey Braden and James Daley, were dragged by the men to Omaha and presented them to the judge there, who immediately threw them in jail to wait for a trial.

That evening, a group of dozens showed up at the jail with ropes. Pushing past the sheriff, they opened the jail with his keys and tied the ropes around the mens' necks. Thrown into the back of a wagon, they were led to the spot two miles north of Florence where the farmer took them hostage earlier that day. Using the wagon they were brought on, the men were strung up and hung.

An illustration of the Florence-area lynching of two men from 1875.

The sheriff rode up to Florence and got the bodies the next day. When the judge called the men of Omaha to the courthouse that day, he asked them who did it. Nobody admitted any fault, and nobody would say who else was involved. Nobody was ever accused, tried, or convicted for murdering the two men. 

According to the original author, after this story was originally published in 1875, the truth came out that many of Omaha's leading men from its pioneer days were involved in the lynching.

Rob a House, Get Murdered By a Mob

George Taylor lived on Military Road northwest of Omaha in 1861. One day that spring when he'd left home, his wife reported that two men broke in, tied her up and took all the valuables in the house. The marshall heard about the crime from George Taylor, and he went looking for the men. He found two unknown men playing cards and flashing money at a saloon who seemed like they were guilty. The marshall arrested them and learned their names were James Bouve and John Iler. However, they were released when the sheriff listened to them describe the hard work they'd done to earn their pay. The marshall apologized and the men went back to drinking.

The judge told the marshall to follow the men, and he did. When he found the men walking towards the river, he immediately arrested them again and brought them to the courthouse this time. There, the judge had called George Taylor's wife to identify the criminals. She fingered Bouve and Iler.

The farms of early wealthy people in Omaha were well-kept and nice. This illustration is from 1869.

That night, a "committee of men" accompanied by the marshall interrogated the men. With a gun to his face, Iler confessed they did it, and was led to the spot where the pair hid the booty.

The next morning, this committee decided to have their own trial. They made up their own jury, then listened to Taylor's wife. A real lawyer got up and said the law should be followed and this fake trial should be stopped. The jury found the men guilty, and asked if they should be over to the committee instead of letting them go to real court. The jury said yes, they should go to the committee. Turning to the crowd outside for a vote, they mostly agreed the committee should have their way. "...when the crowd dispersed it was pretty generally understood that the vigilance committee would have a 'neck-tie sociable' that very night."

At midnight, a crowd showed up in Omaha's courthouse, "overpowered the marshall," and took the men from their cells. A rumour went through the crowd that Bouve was a professional gambler and thief who'd killed several men in Colorado. Without making a confession and while cursing the crowd, Bouve was murdered. "The committee" lynched him with rope hung from a rafter in the ceiling of the courthouse. For his confession, Iler was turned loose and shot at while he ran from town.

Stealing Land 

The year before the Nebraska Territory was opened for settlement, ambitious businessmen started gathering in Council Bluffs. The city's so-called founding fathers all came from the eastern United States, often from the same towns and colleges. Seeing vast opportunity on the other side of the Missouri River, they worked together to make sure they got rich. For the most part, their schemes worked. 

Jacob Shull was a settler who moved to the Nebraska Territory around 1856 from back east. However, he wasn't part of the cabal that were recognized as the founding fathers of the city. Instead, he was a regular guy who wanted a slice of the new lands. Moving to the southwest part of Omaha around present-day South 16th and Leavenworth, he staked a claim and built up his property quickly.

He likely had a house and a barn, a feeding shed and a chicken coop. Maybe there was an icehouse over a creek, and there may have been a milking barn. Shull built up his land "with several buildings."

People from around the world were enticed to come to Nebraska with advertisements like these.

When he saw a mob of 100 to 150 men coming over the hill, Shull was caught completely off guard. They came to his house and looked for him - but guessing what they were coming from, he ran. Shull made it to town, where he hid in a store. 

In the meantime, the ruthless mob destroyed every building on Shull's property and burnt them all to the ground. This was meant to be a signal to anyone in Omaha who thought about claiming a stake without the mob's permission. They eventually called themselves the Omaha Claim Club. Without the law or Army being able to stop them, they kept terrorizing the city and its new citizens for several more years. They also gave away Shull's land to one of their men.

Shull died the next year, reportedly from stress caused by the Omaha Claim Club's mob terrorism. On his deathbed, he told his son he'd get the land someday, and he was right. He was right, since his heirs took the person who stole his land to court, and won the deed. Shull's Addition was platted, and his ghost was vindicated. However, the mob terrorism continued.

Targeting Ethnicities

For comprising almost half of the city's population around 1900, immigrants had a really hard time getting a foothold in pioneer Omaha. After making land grabs when the Nebraska Territory was opened for settlement, the founding fathers fought hard to protect their claims, legal and otherwise. One unfortunate target was an Irish settler who was almost murdered by a mob.

In 1857, an Irish immigrant whose last name was Callahan staked a claim to land around present-day 30th and Dodge Streets. Carefully laying out his claim, he was surprised when the Omaha Claim Club mob descended on his property, too. He also ran, but unlike Shull, he came back a few days later to continue his claim.

The mob came back, and this time kidnapped Callahan. They dragged him into Omaha and held a kangaroo court trial. Of course the mob found him guilty, and found a great way to terrorize him with the verdict that either he, "he should renounce all claims to the land, or be drowned in the Missouri river."

Targeting ethnicities made this American mob feel strong and proud.

Callahan was very, very angry, and stuck to his ground. His face red and bloody from being beaten, imagine him raging, "I WILL NOT GIVE UP MY LAND TO YOU BASTARDS!"

Guaranteed the terrorists of the Omaha Claim Club targeted Callahan because he was Irish and not part of the eastern cabal that terrorized everyone who wasn't aligned with their interests.

The mob dragged him kicking and screaming to the river. It was February.

Smashing a hole in the ice at the river's edge, they asked Callahan if he'd give up his land. He screamed no, and they dunked him.

Bringing him out, they asked him again. Through chattering teeth and shivering bones, Callahan said no. The mob members dunked him in, and after a minute brought him out. 

This time Callahan's clothes were sopping wet, and he was loosing his ability to talk. They asked him again whether he'd give up his land, and again, he refused.

The third time they dunked him, Callahan took a few minutes before he could spit out the ice water lodged in his body. He became unresponsive, so the Omaha Claim Club terrorists dragged him back to town. The quack doctors in Omaha stripped his clothes off and put him in front of a woodstove, feeding him whiskey until he came around. The mob stood in the building with papers, and as soon as Callahan regained the ability to speak, he acquiesced and signed over his land.

The mob immediately sold the land to another guy, and the issue was concerned resolved. Callahan certainly got no money. He died a few years later.

The Busywork of Mob Violence

A year later, an Omaha mob rustled a man named Ziegler in name of claim-jumping too. Threatening him with death, the man was led off his land and to the Missouri River, where he was told to never come back. The same year, the Omaha Claim Club intervened in the affairs of a Bellevue man who was being threatened with death. Siding with the criminals, the claim club mob forced the man to sign by gunpoint and knife. They actually stripped him of his clothes to disgrace him too. This man lost after he sued a few years later.

In a separate story from the early 1860s, a different Irishman filed a claim on a piece of land where another man lived. The Omaha mob showed up when he was done, beat him up and threw him into the back of a wagon. Taking him to the land, they tied a noose around his neck and hung him, but cut him down before he died. Throwing water over him, they tried to make him sign a quit-claim, but he wouldn't do it. They lynched him again, cutting him down again right before he died. Again, he wouldn't sign. They did this a third time, and he still wouldn't sign.

The Omaha Claim Club decided to torture the man instead. The mob took him to a shed and locked him up, stationing a mob guard outside the door to make sure he didn't escape. Inside, the man starved for several days, before he was so hungry that he signed their papers.

The Omaha Claim Club was proven illegal by the United States Supreme Court in 1870 - but they kept operating, albeit in different forms.

For instance, in 1891 a mob attacked the Omaha Courthouse in order to lynch a Black man named George Smith and called Joe Coe. Accused of attacking a white woman, Omaha's group terrorists were inflamed when they discovered he'd been accused of raping a white woman in Council Bluffs. Not waiting for a judge, jury or any other part of the legal system, the terrorists decided what should be done.

Listening to rumors and becoming even angrier, the mob swelled with up to 10,000 people. That evening, the governor of Nebraska came to the courthouse and begged to the mob to back off - but they didn't. The county sheriff pleaded back to the courthouse to be lynched, James E. Boyd, the governor of Nebraska, and the county sheriff both appealed to the men to disperse. Instead, by midnight a crowd of 1,000 to 10,000 people had gathered at the courthouse.[5] The mob beat Coe and dragged him through city streets. He was probably already dead when he was hung from a streetcar wire at 17th and Harney Streets.[6] Omaha mayor Richard C. Cushing quickly condemned the lynching as "the most deplorable thing that has ever happened in the history of the country."[7]

Mobs in the Early 20th Century

With the turn of the century, Omaha's mob terrorism took a decidedly racist turn. Hyped up by Ed Rosewater's yellow journalism and thrown into motion by Omaha's political boss Tom Dennison, white people repeatedly took hate-filled group action designed to keep the rest of the city in check, especially anyone not seen as white.

Frustrated Terrorism

South Omahans proudly stand outside a Greek Town confectionary they destroyed in 1909.

In 1909, African American boxing great Jack Johnson fought a white guy in Reno, Nevada. Billed as the "Fight of the Century," Jack whooped him and collected his prize. With news traveling via tickertape, the next day Omaha found out about the outcomes. A lot of men gambled a lot of money on the fight, guessing their white boxer would win.

When Jack whooped him almost immediately, the crowds in Omaha's Sporting District went ballistic and gathered in the streets. They decided to rage against the city's Black population. The mob attacked the Near North Side in full force, targeting any Black person on the street, throwing rocks at African Americans' houses and terrorizing the population. That day, they killed at least one person and wounded many others.

Starting in the 1880s, South Omaha had a large population of Greeks who all lived in an area called Greek Town. That same year, 1909, a Greek man was accused of having a relationship with a white woman. That was illegal because Greeks weren't seen as "white people." Instead, they were viewed as people of color, and anyone who wasn't white couldn't have a relationship with a white woman. An Irish South Omaha policeman soon paid him a visit. Apparently, the Greek man ended up fighting, and taking the policeman's weapon, the Greek man shot and killed him. Other police immediately chased and found the man, and threw him in the South Omaha jail.

Inevitably, a mob showed up outside the jail. Sneaking the man from the jail, the South Omaha police brought him to the Omaha jail for safekeeping. Along the way, the mob got a hold of the Greek more than once, trying to lynch him and being stopped by the police repeatedly. They didn't succeed.
However, they were frustrated.

Turning their hatred and bloodlust back to South Omaha, the mob terrorized the citizens of Greek Town by attacking their homes, businesses and church. They ran through tenements and apartment buildings, ransacking and looting and screaming at the Greek immigrants to leave Omaha. The mob turned to businesses, demolishing windows and looting the stores. Then they lit the torches.

Overnight, the mob burnt Greek Town to the ground.

The entire Greek population was terrorized that night, and more than 1,000 fled the city. It took years for some to return, and many never did.

Mob terrorism reached a fever pitch in Omaha a decade later.

Senseless Terrorism

In 1919, a mob terrorized North Omaha in ways that continue to affect the area to this day, almost a century later.

It began when a young white girl accused an African American man of assaulting her. It ended when the Army sent troops to establish a safe zone around the Near North Side. Between those two events, two days passed; the city's mayor was hung, only to be saved in the final moments; a Black man named Will Brown was beaten, tortured, shot, lynched, decimated and burnt; a white mob nearly destroyed the brand-new Douglas County Courthouse; at least one other man was murdered; the city's police force was overwhelmed; and the mayor's plea to the governor to send National Guard troops fell on deaf ears.

This newspaper highlights the presence of U.S. Army troops in North Omaha, even making light of their eating arrangements and talking about their presence as casually as any other news of the day. 

This act of mob terrorism established Omaha's harsh redlining practice, in place into the 1960s, which was a strict housing segregation practice that prevented several generations of African Americans from leaving the Near North Side neighborhood. In turn, this exacerbated the City of Omaha's approach to Blacks, forcing a policy of benign neglect that continues to affect the community today.

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April 21, 2016

A Short History of the Squatter's Row in North Omaha

These pictures MIGHT be of Squatter's Row in North Omaha.

Before 1900, Nebraska state law was favorable to squatters, allowing people who lived on a property for ten years without being disturbed by the owner to claim the title of the property, as long as they could prove they'd been there that long.

One area that benefited a lot from that law was a little strip in North Omaha, from North 11th Street on the east to North 13th on the west; Nicholas Street on the south to Locust on the north. This area was home to the North Omaha rail yards, but the railroads didn't have without any concern for the squatters were starting putting up their shacks there as early as the 1860s.

The area at the south end of Squatter's Row was a lowland swamp that served as a city dump. Squatters used tin cans, automobile fenders and all kinds of trash to build up the land. Their homes were "constructed of tar-paper, tin cans and other material salvaged from the dump; many of the squatters earn their living by sorting the discarded junk and selling the salable articles." 

Claiming the higher ground since the 1860s, Cornelia "Granny" Weatherford was "one of the first." In 1897, the Nebraska laws favoring squatters were changed and Squatter's Row began emptying out. However, Granny Weatherford stayed until she died in the late 1930s.

The neighborhood, which wrapped around the Union Pacific's North Omaha Railyard, was comprised of dozens of shanties. There was an area called Vinegar Flats and another called Blind Pig Alley.

The City of Omaha began a massive "slum clearance" program in the 1930s, and Squatter's Row was likely cleared out and demolished then. In 1939, the place was mentioned in the federal publication called Nebraska: A Guide to the Cornhusker State. The research for this book was conducted by the Works Progress Administration in 1935, so it was probably demolished immediately afterwards.

Today, there's no sign of Squatter's Row anywhere in Omaha.

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North Omaha Mansions #8: The Governor's Estate

Built after he was Nebraska's last Territorial Governor, Alvin Saunder's mansion sat on a large estate.

  • Built: 1880s (est)
  • Address: 1510 Sherman Avenue / 2008 North 16th Street (street numbers changed)
  • Architecture: Second Italianate Renaissance Style
  • Demolished: 1975 (est)

All About Alvin

Alvin Saunders was a normal guy who wanted to learn. After college, he became a postmaster in Iowa and then opened a store. He went into Iowa Territory politics in the 1840s and served in the state senate there in the 1850s. Soon after Nebraska was declared a territory, he moved to Omaha.

An image of Alvin Saunders with his signature at bottom.

In 1861, he was appointed by President Abraham Lincoln to serve as the governor of Nebraska Territory. With the longest term of office for Nebraska's territorial governors, he served until statehood in 1867. During his term, Saunders was largely responsible for getting the Union Pacific bridge built across the Missouri River in present-day downtown Omaha, instead of further north or south. He secured lots to donate to the Union Pacific, too, ensuring the development of the Union Pacific Station and the Union Pacific Shops. 

After leaving office, Saunders made money through a variety of enterprises. He was president of the State Bank of Nebraska; vice president of the Omaha and Southwest Railroad; and one of the original shareholders in the Omaha Smelter. However, during the financial panic of 1873, Saunders lost his shirt. With his wealth tapped, he had to sell the fine home he built at 18th and Farnam, moving to a small house for several years. 

Saunders' original home at 18th & Farnam near the Nebraska Territorial Capital in downtown Omaha. He had to sell this house during the financial panic of 1873.

Making a Comeback

However, in 1877 he staged a comeback by winning a term as a U.S. Senator from Nebraska. While there, he served as chairman of the Committee on Territories in the 47th United States Congress. He also accumulated influence and power, and likely fortified his wealth. 

After serving, Saunders stayed busy with civic affairs in Omaha. He also continued his business activities, running the Omaha Real Estate and Trust Company for several years; serving as vice president of the Mutual Investment Company; and becoming a director in the Merchants National Bank and the Nebraska Savings and Exchange Bank.

Saunders did a lot of things for Omaha, not the least of which was landing the bridge and building businesses. He was highly regarded at the end of his life for all he'd done to promote Omaha. 

One of his most obvious legacies today are the Nebraska county and former Omaha school named for him. However, he's also partially responsible for the construction of the Omaha landmark Memmen Apartments. It was built in 1889 in “Franklin Square,” a subdivision of Saunders' estate. He also served on the original board of regents for Omaha High School, and is credited with securing the resources to build the first high school in the city.

Building a Fine Home

As he was elected Senator, Alvin and his wife, Marthena, had a fine new home built on his North Omaha estate along Sherman Avenue. Built in the exquisite Second Italianate Renaissance style, the home featured a "Pink Room" where Mrs. Saunders entertained female guests, and in 1891, Saunders had a "President's Room" installed. That May, President Benjamin Harrison came to visit while still in office.

After serving his term, Saunders frequently played host to visiting luminaries such as President Harrison. However, Harrison was special. Way back in 1878, Benjamin Harrison helped his son Russell move to Helena, Montana. During his time there, he met and married Mary Saunders, the daughter of Governor Saunders, in 1884. So when President Harrison came to visit it was personal and there were surely grandchildren discussed, as well as other family affairs.

The couples at Saunder's Presidential reception read like a who's-who of early Omaha history, including the the McKees, Caldwells, Yates, Rosewaters, Orrs, Doanes, Poppletons, Browns, Deuels, Paddocks, Horbachs, Burkes, and Mercers. Many of their older unwed daughters attended, too. There were at least 100 people there. A band played along the winding driveway off Sherman Avenue, and hundreds of other people stood outside the property to see the President arrive and leave.

Alvin Saunders died in 1900, and his wife died in 1928. They're buried at Forest Lawn Cemetery. 

Life After Fame

This lot on the northeast corner of North 16th and Grace may have been the site of the Saunders mansion. Those are the Margaret Apartments to the north.

After the ex-Governor and his wife passed away, the house changed hands. His son, Charles Saunders, who served as a Nebraska state legislator, lived in the house for several decades after his father passed away.

Eventually, the building had other uses. It might not have been demolished until the 1970s - I'm searching for evidence right now. Let me know what you know? Thanks!

Special thanks to Michele Wyman for her assistance locating this home.

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April 18, 2016

A History of an Unsolved Murder in North Omaha

Adam's note: I'm a little hesitant to share this story, but I'm going to. Bad things happen in communities, and this story is part of North Omaha's history. I've removed family names out of respect for the families involved.

This is Kellom School in 1914. It was located at N. 24th and Paul Streets.

In September 1909, an 11-year-old African American boy named Othello was murdered in North Omaha. In a particularly gruesome murder, his body was found underneath some exterior stairs at the original Kellom School, then located at North 22nd and Nicholas Streets.

The day before his body was found, Othello's sister Emma, who was 16-years-old, talked with an African American member of the cast of Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show, which had performed at the circus grounds at 23rd and Paul Streets the day before.

In a police report, she said that she had went with Othello to the show. However, after she talked with an African American show performer and her brother came over to talk with them, she left separately and went home alone.

Othello's body was found the next morning. He was naked and there were strangle marks around his neck. His ripped clothes were beside him, and blood was around the whole scene. Newspaper accounts said that bloody wounds on his face made identifying him a gruesome thing.

An 1887 photo of the cast of Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show.

The Omaha Negro Business Owners League immediately offered a $200 reward for information leading to the arrest of the murderer.

After his examination by the city coroner, a performer named John was arrested while traveling with the Wild West Show in Shenandoah, Iowa. Dorsey came to Omaha on his own, and during questioning he admitted to having a conversation with Emma, but said he had no knowledge of the boy's murder.

Later that week, police released Dorsey since they had no evidence he murdered the child. Without any further leads, the case of Othello went cold and was never solved.

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